Application and technical standard of stereoscopic

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Application and technical standard of stereoscopic printing materials

in order to ensure the stereoscopic effect of stereoscopic printing, considering the material of grating, we must also select the grating with different parameters in combination with the image effect

1. Material of grating sheet

the material of grating sheet shall have the properties of high transparency, high refractive index, good gloss, strong plasticity and stability. The materials used for making toys and food packaging shall also be non-toxic and harmless. At present, polystyrene (PET), polypropylene (PP) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) grating plates are mainly used in the market

① polystyrene resin (PET)

polystyrene (PET) is used to make hard plastic grating plates, which can be directly printed with ordinary ink. Polystyrene raw material is processed into concave convex column mirror like grating sheet by injection molding

polystyrene is colorless and transparent (the transparency is 88% - 92%), the refractive index is 1.59-1.6, and has no ductility and flammability. Because of such a high refractive index, it has good luster. Its tensile strength is 3.52-6.33mpa, its bending strength is 6.12-9.84mpa, and its thermal deformation temperature is 70-98 C

the chemical properties of polystyrene are resistant to certain mineral oils, organic acids, alkalis, salts, lower alcohols and their aqueous solutions. It softens after being eroded by hydrocarbons, ketones and higher fatty esters, and dissolves in aromatic hydrocarbons, toluene, ethylbenzene and styrene monomers. In some cases, the corrosion degree of polystyrene by chemical reagents can be reduced by annealing, stress relief and other measures

polystyrene has good stability, high picture quality, non-toxic raw materials and high chemical resistance, but it is difficult to bond and process. It is mainly used for toys, fine advertising, etc

② polypropylene (PP)

polypropylene (PP) can be directly printed with common ink with high precision; There are two oil tank brushes, but the surface needs spark treatment. The ink drying speed is faster than that of polystyrene

polypropylene is softer than polystyrene and harder than PVC. High stability, but average image quality. The raw materials are non-toxic, low chemical resistance, easy to be bonded and processed, and are mostly used for packaging, stationery, etc

③ polyvinyl chloride (PVC)

polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is used to make soft plastic cylindrical lens grating plate. Hot oil press shall be used to press the picture and PVC sheet base through metal grating roller or grating plate

PVC is a polymer compound formed by polymerization of chlorinated alkene, which is difficult to burn. Although both PVC and polyethylene are milky white, PVC can be made into colorless, transparent and glossy films, and various soft films can be made according to the content of plasticizer. This material is bonded after pulse heat sealing and high-frequency heat sealing. At this time, a safety helmet should be placed on the head mold to isolate it, which has a high fastness. PVC has good chemical resistance, but poor thermal stability and light resistance. Hydrogen chloride begins to decompose at 140 C, and stabilizer needs to be added during manufacturing. PVC contains 56% - 58% chlorine and is easily soluble in ketones, esters and chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents with low relative molecular weight; High molecular weight is difficult to dissolve

PVC has low stability and rough picture quality. In addition, PVC gratings are generally not used in toys and food packaging products in European and American countries because they are toxic and environmentally friendly

2. Choose the grating material according to the final effect of the picture

according to the principle of stereo vision, if we can let our left and right eyes see two images taken in different positions, the brain can integrate the two images, so as to feel a three-dimensional three-dimensional space. Different images can be seen from different angles by using the image division function of the grating plate. Therefore, if we place the grating perpendicular to the two eyes, the two eyes will see two different images due to the different observation angles of the two eyes on the grating, resulting in a three-dimensional feeling. In order to obtain a better stereoscopic effect, we usually do not use two images alone, but use a series of stereoscopic images. In this case, according to the different observation positions, as long as we see two images in this sequence at the same time, we can feel the stereoscopic effect

the stereoscopic grating requires fine images and sharp changes, so the viewing angle range should be smaller, so that the visual effect is real and the stereoscopic sense is strong

variation grating place the grating between the two eyes. Note that the line angle of the two eyes to the grating should be parallel, so the two eyes see the same image. If the image is composed of a series of continuous animation, when the two eyes move up and down or flip the grating up and down, the angle between the two eyes and the grating will change, and we will also see one continuous image after another, that is, we will see the effect of variation

the variation grating requires a larger viewing angle range, so that the transformation range of the image is larger and the intersection between different images is less, and the transformation of the image can be clearly felt. According to the analysis, this type of grating requires a small ratio of its thickness to the grid distance, so that a large viewing angle range can be obtained

if the stereoscopic grating is used to make the variation effect, it often leads to incomplete shadow elimination; However, the stereoscopic effect produced by the variation grating will make the stereoscopic sense weak. Therefore, the appropriate grating plate should be selected according to the desired performance

3. The method of accurate measurement of grating pitch

grating pitch is generally matched accurately by using a series of grating test strips with nominal grating pitch. There are many kinds of grating spacing test strips. Different software manufacturers use different test strips, but their basic principles are basically similar. It is to make use of the image division characteristics of the grating plate and load different grating spacing parameters to produce a series of black-and-white patterns, so that when the grating plate is consistent with the nominal grid spacing, a specific pattern will appear when viewed from a certain angle

consists of a series of black-and-white stripes. During the test, the grating is pressed on the grating test strip for observation. You should also pay special attention to this. When you see that one of them can show an all white pattern when observed from a certain angle, and when it can show an all black pattern when observed from another angle, the grid distance under the test strip is the actual grid distance of the grating plate

before the 1990s, paper products, packaging and printing adhesives, varnish and film covering adhesives were mostly prepared with solvent-based polymer as the base material. Since a large number of organic solvents are used as diluents in the base materials, with the application of the products, the organic solvents will eventually volatilize and escape, polluting the air and wasting resources. In addition, most of the organic solvents are flammable and explosive substances, so there are serious fire hazards. After the 1990s, with the continuous strengthening of foreign environmental laws and regulations, western industrial developed countries have continuously developed a series of water-based adhesives and water-based varnish products for packaging and printing, which use water instead of organic solvents. National Starch Chemical Co., Ltd., fuller chemical, Aksu? The products developed by Nobel and Henkel chemicals of Germany are favored by the market as an environment-friendly and environmentally friendly water-based material due to their excellent performance and moderate price. According to the literature, the output of these aquatic products has continued to increase at a rate of 20% ~ 30% every year from 1991 to 2005. In 2005, a total of 1.5 million tons of products were produced, accounting for 15% of the global annual output of water-based adhesives and water-based varnish products for packaging and printing. The research and development of water-based adhesives and water-based varnish for packaging and printing in China started late. In the first five years of this century, although a few manufacturers introduced water-based products to the market, most of them had low technical content and poor application performance, and there was still a big gap compared with foreign products. The product technology route of some manufacturers is generally realized by blending and assembling some domestic non special latex and other general water-soluble polymers, or by mainly modifying starch and adding a small amount of non special latex. The products obtained have many performance defects and are difficult to meet the needs of the development of the printing industry. In recent years, some water-based emulsions have been prepared by synthetic means, but the process is old, the technical starting point is not high, and the products lack market competitiveness. Therefore, among medium and high-end products, foreign products still occupy 70% of the domestic market share

since this century, the application of water-based adhesives and water-based varnish for packaging and printing has been in the ascendant. This is because aquatic products are not only in line with the international trend of development, but also in line with China's current policy of sustainable development. In 2005, the total output value of domestic packaging and printing industry was about 300billion yuan, and the consumption of adhesive (including adhesive, varnish and film covering adhesive) was about 4.5 million tons, of which East China market (Jiangsu, Shanghai and Zhejiang) and South China market (mainly in the Pearl River Delta) each accounted for about two fifths of the market share, and other regions in China accounted for about one fifth of the market share. The market demand ratio of water-based adhesive, water-based varnish and water-based film covering adhesive (including aluminized film transfer adhesive) is about 2.5:0.5:1. That is, the market demand of water-based adhesive is about 2.8 million tons, that of water-based varnish is about 560000 tons, and that of water-based film covering adhesive is about 1.1 million tons

development trend

market demand continues to grow rapidly

the demand for most adhesives and supporting products in China is expected to increase by more than 10%. By 2010, the total output will reach 7.3 million tons, with an average annual growth rate of 11.5%, and the total value of 57billion yuan, with an average annual growth rate of 11.8%

environmental friendly and energy-saving adhesives and their supporting products accelerate the development

as China actively promotes the fundamental transformation of the mode of economic growth, takes improving the efficiency of resource utilization as the core, speeds up the adjustment of product structure, and strengthens the awareness of saving. Under the guidance of this policy, environment-friendly and energy-saving adhesive products are deeply concerned and will develop faster. It is expected to grow at a rate of 12% ~ 20% per year during the Eleventh Five Year Plan period. Among them, the (meth) acrylate lotion adhesive ranks first in the five series of products

high performance, high quality and high-tech products have made great progress

with the development of China's economy and the acceleration of the process of global economic and technological integration, the market demand and selection of products are becoming more and more demanding. High performance, multi-functional, environmental friendly and energy-saving adhesive products will be favored by the market. It is expected that these high-tech products will develop at a rate of more than 20%

the supply of main raw materials will be greatly improved. Foreign funded enterprises will continue to develop. During the Eleventh Five Year Plan period, the number of foreign-funded enterprises in China will increase, the production scale will continue to expand, the capital investment will continue to increase, and the high-tech products will increase significantly. Many global famous enterprises have set up research centers in Chinese Mainland, strengthened the research and development of high-tech products, and further improved the product grade. Such as Bayer, BASF, 3M, Rohm Haas, Henkel, nationalstarch, etc. It is expected that during the Eleventh Five Year Plan period, foreign-funded enterprises will develop towards the trend of large-scale production and more high-tech products in China. Its product sales will increase from 40% of the total sales of adhesives in Chinese Mainland to 45% ~ 50%

the product production pattern accelerates to concentrate on large-scale and intensive advantageous enterprises

at present, the number of domestic adhesive production enterprises is large and the scale is small. According to the statistics in 2003, there were more than 3500 enterprises in China, but less than 100 enterprises at the upper scale. Among them, 15% ~ 20% of the enterprises closed down every year for various reasons. Most enterprises have backward production technology, low-grade products, poor technological innovation and scientific research and development ability, aging products, single varieties, and can not keep up with the rapid development小腹胀气是怎么回事

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